• Glossary of terms


    A

    A/P

    Anterior/Posterior (anatomic terms)

    AAOS

    American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons

    Abdomen

    A portion of the body between the thorax and pelvis

    Abduct

    To draw away from the midline

    Abduction

    The act of drawing away from the midline; opposite of adduction

    Abductor

    A muscle performing the function of abduction

    Abscess

    Localized collection of pus

    Acetabulum

    The cavity in the os coxae (hip) into which the head of the femur fits

    Acromion

    Bony process of the scapula which forms the point of the shoulder

    Acute

    Severe and/or short duration; used in speaking of duration and severity of disease

    Adamant

    Extremely hard, as enamel of tooth

    Adduct

    To draw toward the midline

    Adduction

    The act of drawing toward the midline; opposite abduction

    Allograft

    A tissue transplanted to a different individual of the same species

    Alloy

    A mix of metals designed to improve implant material properties for specific purposes

    All-poly

    A component composed entirely of polyethylene, with no metal parts

    Amphiarthrosis

    A joint with little movement and no joint cavity

    Anconeus

    Pertaining to the elbow

    Ankylosis

    The fusion of a joint

    Anteflexion

    A forward curvature; a condition in which the upper part of an organ is bent forward; opposite of retroflexion

    Anterior

    Placed in the front or forward part; opposite of posterior

    Anteversion

    A forward turning; a condition in which an entire organ is abnormally tipped forward

    Apex

    Top or summit

    Aponeurosis

    A flat sheet of white fibrous tissue, usually serving as an attachment for a muscle; plural aponeuroses; aponeurotica, Latin adjective

    Appliance

    Device used in support or fracture fixation external or internal

    Apposition

    The state of being fitted together, being in contact at the ends (see also mineral apposition)

    Aqueous

    Watery

    Arthritis

    Inflammation of a joint

    Arthrodesis

    Fusion of a joint, eliminating all motion

    Arthroplasty

    The surgical reconstruction of a joint

    Arthrosis

    A joint: from the Greek

    Arthrotomy

    Cutting into a joint

    Articular

    Pertaining to a joint; surfaces that "fit together"

    Articulation

    Movement of a joint; from the Latin

    Asepsis

    A condition free from germs; free from infection

    Aspect

    Position, surface, or face

    Aspirate

    To remove by suction

    Asymmetric design

    A design which mirrors the natural, anatomic contours of a joint, a design which comes in right and left configurations

    Atrophy

    A wasting away of tissue usually through disuse

    Autograft

    A tissue transplanted from one part to another part of the same body

    Autonomic

    ?Being self-controlled; independent

    Axial

    ?Pertaining to the axis or line about which a body turns, therefore pertaining to the trunk; opposite of appendicular

    B

    Beads, beaded

    Term used to describe implant coatings made of tiny spheres (beading)

    Biaxial

    Turning about two axes (having two axes)

    Biconcave

    Having two concave surfaces

    Bilateral

    Occurring on both sides of a midline point or pertaining to both sides of the body (ex. bilateral knee replacement means having both knees replaced)

    Biocompatibility

    Materials that can coexist with living tissue without being harmful or toxic or being rejected by the host. The most common materials for joint replacement are polyethylenes, metals and ceramics, each has specific biocompatible characteristics

    Biomechanics

    The study of the relationship between forces and motion in biologic systems like the human body

    Bipolar

    Having two poles or processes

    Blood

    A fluid tissue circulating through heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries

    Bone cement

    Material usually made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) which acts like a grout between an implant and the patient’s bone (see also cement)

    Brachial

    Pertaining to the arm

    Broach

    A tool or instrument used to enlarge the interior canal of bones to allow for insertion of implants, broaching is the process of enlarging the canal

    C

    Cage

    A type of spinal implant

    Calcaneus

    The heel bone; also termed calcaneum

    Calcar

    A thickened plate of bone near the head of the femur

    Cancellous

    Lattice-like bone structure; softer bone

    Cancellous bone

    A type of bone characterized by a spongy or lattice-like structure. Also known as Trabecular Bone.

    Cancellous-structured titanium

    A specially-manufactured, patented type of titanium coating that permits bone ingrowth because of its lattice-like surface texture. (see also CSTi)

    Capitate

    Bone of the wrist having head-shaped process.

    Capitulum

    Little head.

    Capsular

    A ligament which surrounds a movable joint.

    Caput

    Head; capitis, "of the head."

    Carpal

    Pertaining to the wrist.

    Carpus

    The wrist; carpi, "of the wrist."

    Caudal

    Pertaining to any tail-like structure; inferior in position.

    Cement

    Material usually made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) which acts like a grout between an implant and the patient’s bone. (Bone cement)

    Cemented

    An implant which is secured in a patient’s body with the aid of bone cement or the process of using cement to help fix an implant.

    Central

    Situated in the midportion as opposed to peripheral.

    Chronic

    Of long duration; opposite of acute.

    Circumduct

    To rotate in a cone shape around a single point, as in the shoulder joint.

    Circumflex

    Bent or turned about.

    Clavicle

    The collar bone

    Clinical pathway

    Established methodologies and decision trees for use by health professionals and patients in planning and preparing for medical intervention.

    Coatings

    Any number of different materials applied to the surface of an implant or prosthesis to aid in fixation; porous coatings generally permit ingrowth into the implant. (see also porous, beads)

    Cobalt-chrome

    A metal alloy with excellent resistance to fatigue, cracking and stress, widely-used in orthopedic implants. (also see CoCr)

    Coccyx

    Last, lowest portion of vertebral column (tailbone).

    CoCr

    Cobalt Chrome Alloy, a metal alloy with excellent resistance to fatigue, cracking and stress, widely-used in orthopedic implants.

    Collar, collared

    The top edge of a hip stem implant which rests on the top edges of the bone in which it was implanted.

    Component

    A part of an implant system, for example the patellar component is that piece that either replaces or enhances the original patella (knee cap).

    Concave

    Having a depressed surface; center is at a lower level than edge; opposite of convex.

    Condyle

    A rounded knob on the end of a hone; a knuckle.

    Condyloid

    Resembling a knuckle.

    Congenital

    Present at birth, as in CDH, congenital dislocated hip.

    Congruent

    The degree of constraint of two articular implants. (congruence)

    Convex

    Having a rounded elevated surface; opposite of concave.

    Coracoid

    Like a crow's beak; variant of coronoid.

    Costal

    Pertaining to a rib or ribs.

    Coxa

    The hip; coxae, "of the hip."

    Cranial

    Pertaining to the cranium.

    Cranium

    The skull or brain pan.

    Cruciate

    Shaped like a cross.

    Cruciate ligament

    Any paired set of ligaments that cross over each other in an "X" formation, usually used to refer to the posterior cruciate ligament and the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee, which help stabilize the forward and backward motion of the knee.

    Cruciate-retaining

    A knee system design that allows the surgeon to keep the patient’s cruciate ligament.

    Cruciate-sacrificing

    A knee system in which the design of the implant must serve to stabilize the forward and back motion of the knee components because of an excised or deficient patient’s ligament. (see also PS)

    CSTi

    A specially manufactured, patented type of titanium coating that permits ingrowth because of its lattice-like surface texture. (see also Cancellous-structured titanium)

    Cubital

    Pertaining to the tile space in front of the elbow joint.

    Custom

    An implant manufactured to the demands of a surgeon based on the specific needs of one patient

    Cyclic fatigue

    A biomechanical measure of stress placed on a material, measured in "cycles" of regular motion (as in joint motion - rotation, bending, etc.)

    D

    Deltoid

    Triangular; resembling the Greek letter, delta.

    Design rationale

    The justification for an implant design based on extensive research into materials, clinical data, function, style, anatomical constraints, etc.

    Diagnosis

    Recognition of disease from symptoms.

    Diathrosis

    A freely moveable joint; plural diarthroses.

    Digiti

    Of a digit.

    Digitorum

    Of the digits.

    Dislocation

    The displacement of any part, especially the removal temporarily of a bone from its normal position in a joint

    Distal

    Remote; opposite of proximal.

    Dorsiflex

    To turn toward the back; opposite of palmar flex.

    E

    Endosteum

    Tissue surrounding the medullary cavity of bone.

    Epi

    A prefix meaning "on" or "above", opposite of hypo.

    Epicondyle

    A prominence or a bone on or upon a condyle.

    Epiphysis

    A part of process of a bone which ossifles separately before making osseous union with the main portion of the bone; the "growth plate" of bones

    Etiology

    The study of the causes of disease

    Eversion

    The act of turning outward; opposite of inversion.

    Evert

    To turn out; to turn tile sole of the foot outward opposite of invert.

    Extension

    A movement at a joint bringing the two parts into or toward a straight line from a flexed position; opposite of flexion

    External

    On the surface or outer side; opposite of internal. Latin adjective, externus or externa

    Extra

    Prefix meaning "outside of," opposite of intra

    F

    FDA

    Food and Drug Administration

    Femur

    Thigh; bone of the thigh; femoral is the adjective; femoris, "of the thigh." Smaller bone of lower leg; tile splint bone

    Fixation

    The act, process or operation of holding, suturing or fastening something into a fixed position. In orthopedics, often refers to the stability and immobilization of an implant into the patient’s body

    Flexion

    Sagittal plane movement in which the anterior surfaces of two segments are brought closer to each other; opposite of extension; bending of a joint

    Flexure

    The curved or bent part of a structure

    Foramen

    A hole; plural, foramina, or foramens

    Fossa

    A pit or hollow; plural, fossae

    Fracture

    A break in the continuity of bone

    G

    Glenoid

    Resembling a pit or pocket. The glenoid fossa of the scapula is very shallow. Analogous to the acetabulum of the hip

    GMP

    Good Manufacturing Practices, part of total quality systems

    H

    Hallux

    The great toe; hallucis "of the great toe"

    Harris Hip Scores

    A numerical rating scale used for evaluation of the hip. The Harris Hip Rating Scale evaluates pain, function, absence of deformity and range of motion. One hundred is the highest possible total.

    HSS Knee Scores

    Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Scores, a numerical scale for rating knees.

    Humerus

    The upper arm bone.

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)

    A bioactive calcium phosphate ceramic similar to normal bone, may be applied to implant surfaces.

    Hyper

    Prefix meaning above; opposite of hypo.

    Hyperplasia

    Increase in size of a tissue or organ due to an increase in the number of cells.

    Hypertrophy

    Increase in the size of a tissue or organ due to an increase in the size of its constituent cells.

    Hypo

    A prefix meaning below or under; opposite or epi or hyper.

    I

    IDE

    Investigational Device Exemption (studies of experimental products).

    Ilium

    The bone of the flank; adjective is iliac; ilio is the combining form.

    Implant

    A device (or tissue or substance) that is transferred, grafted, or inserted into a living body. (see also stem, prosthesis)

    Index

    Referring to the forefinger or "pointing" finger.

    Inferior

    Situated or placed below; opposite of superior; inferioris, a Latin form of the adjective.

    Infra

    A prefix meaning "beneath," opposite of supra.

    Ingrowth

    The process of living bone or tissue growing up to and into the surface of an implant, very important for stabilization and long-term life of the implant. (bone or bony ingrowth)

    Instrument

    A tool or implement used in surgery.

    Inter

    A prefix meaning "between".

    Interbody fusion

    A surgical technique for achieving bony fusion between invertebral bodies, term used to describe a specific back surgery technique.

    Interface

    Surface forming a common boundary between two bodies (used to describe the interaction of implant and living tissue).

    Internal

    Within or on the inside.

    Intra

    A prefix meaning "within".

    Inversion

    The act of tuning inward; opposite of eversion.

    Invert

    To turn in; to turn the sole of the foot inward; opposite of evert.

    Involuntary

    Performed against the will or consent.

    Ischium

    Bone of the hip; adjective is ischiatic, ischial, or sciatic.

    ISO

    International Standards Organization, a standards issuing body.

    K

    Knee Society Score

    A numerical scale for evaluating knee function developed by the Knee Society.

    Kyphosis

    An abnormal condition (curvature) of the spine; hunch-backed.

    L

    Lateral

    Pertaining to the side; opposite of medial.

    LD

    Low-demand or low density

    LDPE

    Low Density Polyethylene

    Ligament

    Fibrous connective tissue connecting the articular ends of bones serving to bind them together and to facilitate or limit motion.

    Lordosis

    Abnormal anterior convexity of the lumbar spine.

    Lumen

    Space within a tube or organ.

    Lunate

    A bone of the carpus shaped like a crescent moon.

    Luxation

    Dislocation of a joint.

    M

    M/L

    Medial/Lateral (anatomic term)

    Major

    Larger, opposite of minor, majus is neuter adjective.

    Malleolus

    A little hammer (mallet); a hammer-shaped process; ankle bone. Plural, malleoli.

    Mandible

    Bone of lower jaw.

    Marrow

    Soft central part of a bone.

    Maxilla

    A jawbone; particularly the bone of the upper jaw.

    Media

    Middle

    Medial

    Pertaining to the center; opposite of lateral.

    Median

    Pertaining to the middle; that is, between two other structures.

    Meniscectomy

    Removal of the meniscus cartilage of the knee.

    Meniscus

    A "C" shaped cartilage in the knee which provides a stabilization system for the knee and a measure of shock absorption

    Metacarpus

    Beyond the instep; the five bones of the foot between the toes and tarsal bone

    Metal-backed

    Term used to describe implants that have a polyethylene liner set in a metal shell or on a metal base, the metal portion would rest in a prepared area in the bone and the polyethylene side would move against other metal components

    Minor

    Smaller, opposite of major.

    Morphology

    The study of the structure of organisms, used colloquially to refer to the structure of body parts

    N

    Navicular

    Boat shaped; carpal bone at the base of the thumb. Also called the scaffoid

    Necrosis

    Death of areas of tissue or bone surrounded by healthy tissue.

    Non-porous

    An implant designed to be used with bone cement for stabilization; a surface that is not designed for nor coated with surfaces for ingrowth

    O

    O.R.I.F.

    Open Reduction, Internal Fixation.

    Oblique

    Slanting; between horizontal and vertical direction..; Latin adjective, obliquus

    Olecranon

    From the Greek word for elbow. The prominence at the proximal end of the ulna

    Opposition

    The act of opposing one part to another.

    Orbital

    Pertaining to the orbit (eye).

    Organ

    A group of tissues having a special function.

    Orthopedics

    Branch of medical science that deals with treatment of disorders involving locomotor structures of the body, especially the skeleton, joints, muscle, fascia.

    Orthopedist

    A physician specializing in orthopedics.

    Os

    Bone; Os coxae - hip bone.

    Osmosis

    Passage of fluid across a membrane from a lesser to a more highly concentrated solution

    Ossification

    Formation of bone.

    Osteophyte

    An abnormal bony outgrowth

    Osteoporosis

    Increased porosity of bone.

    Osteotomy

    Cutting and repositioning bone to more functional position.

    Outcome management

    The process of collecting, tracking and interpreting outcomes data

    Outcomes

    The results of surgery in terms of patient satisfaction, reduction of pain, improved function, etc. Outcomes are tracked by hospitals and practices.

    Oxygenless

    A patented procedure used by Zimmer in the packaging of polyethylenes where oxygen is removed from the packaging. Lab testing has shown the process decreases the wear rates of PE (polyethylene).

    P

    Palmar

    The palm of the hand.

    Para

    Prefix meaning "beside," "accessory to" or near.

    Patella

    The kneecap

    Patient Satisfaction Surveys

    Surveys which seek to measure patients’ satisfaction with their surgery, recovery, etc. These form part of the outcomes data that surgeons and hospitals track.

    Pearls

    Expert surgical techniques developed by senior surgeons, often for particular implants or procedures. (see surgical pearls)

    Pedal

    Pertaining to the foot.

    Pelvis

    A basin or basin-like structure.

    Peri

    Prefix meaning "around."

    Peripheral

    Located on or near the surface of a part.

    Pes

    The foot; pedis, "of the foot."

    Phalanges

    Plural of phalanx, which refers to any bone of the finger or toe.

    Plantar

    Pertaining to the sole of the foot; plaritaris; Latin adjective plantae, "of the sole of the foot."

    Plasma

    Fluid portion of the blood.

    Plasma spray

    A coating for implants

    Plastics

    A common term that in orthopedic devices refers usually to polyethylene and more specifically to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). (see also polyethylene, UHMWPE)

    PMA

    Pre-Market Approval (FDA approval after IDE study is complete).

    PMMA

    Poly methylmethacrylate (bone cement). (see also cement, bone cement)

    Polyethylene

    A type of plastic formed by the polymerization of ethylene. Different structural properties come from differences in molecular weight, branching, cross-linkage and crystallinity. The most common form used in orthopedic devices is ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE).

    Pore

    Small holes or spaces on the surface or interior of a material.

    Porous

    Characterized by pores and open spaces.

    Porous-coated

    The design feature of a type of implant where the metal has small surface openings into which bone or tissue is intended to grow for permanent stabilization.

    Posterior

    Situated behind or toward the back; opposite of anterior.

    Press-fit

    Describes the fit at the interface of an implant with the surrounding bone; the implant is implanted without cement and is tightly "pressed" or impacted into the patient’s bone. (see also uncemented)

    Primary

    Initial or first; in joint replacement, this term is used to indicate the first surgery to repair or replace a joint as opposed to a revision surgery which replaces or revises an implant.

    Process

    A slender projecting point; Latin, processus.

    Prognosis

    The likely outcome of an illness

    Pronate

    To turn palm downward (opposite: supinate).

    Prone

    Lying with face downward (opposite: supine).

    Prosthesis

    Replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute. An artificial organ or part.

    Protract

    To extend forward or outward; opposite of retract.

    Proximal

    Nearest; opposite of distal.

    PS

    Posterior Stabilized; a posterior stabilized knee is a type of semiconstrained total knee system that compensates for a deficient or absent posterior cruciate ligament through its surface geometry (its design minimizes forward and backward movement of the knee and substitutes for the function of the ligament).

    Pseudarthrosis

    A false joint developing after a fracture that has not united.

    Pseudo

    A prefix signifying "false.

    PT

    Premier Total

    Pubis

    Pubic bone

    R

    Radiolucent

    Allowing x-rays to pass through, radiolucent areas appear dark on x-rays.

    Radius

    A bone of the forearm.

    Ream,reaming

    A verb meaning to gouge out holes or enlarge holes already made, in orthopedic surgery, bones need to be reamed to allow for the implantation of a prosthesis.

    Recurvatum

    Hyperextension of the knee.

    Reduction

    Restoration to normal position.

    Retract

    To pull back; opposite of protract.

    Retrieve

    To remove an implant from a patient (retrieved, retrieval)

    Retro

    Prefix meaning behind.

    Retroflexion

    A backward bending of one part of an organ on another portion; Opposite of anteflexion.

    Retroversion

    A backward turning; the entire organ is turned backward; opposite of anteversion.

    Revision

    In orthopedic surgery, this term indicates a subsequent surgery to alter, replace or remove an implant

    Roentgenogram

    A photograph made by means of roentgen rays or x-rays. The rays are named in honor of their discoverer.

    Roentgenoscopy

    Examination by means of a fluoroscope

    ROM

    The area through which a joint may be moved in all planes, measured in degrees. The greater the ROM, the more flexible the joint. One of the goals of joint replacement is to improve a patient’s ROM in the joint that may have been lost to arthritis, trauma or deformity. (range of motion)

    Rotation

    The act of turning about a centrally located length axis

    S

    Sac

    Any bag-like organ

    Sacrum

    Five fused vertebrae below the last lumbar vertebra

    Sagittal

    Pertaining to the median vertical plane of the body

    Scapula

    The shoulder blade.

    Scoliosis

    Lateral abnormal curvature of the spine

    Semilunar

    Shaped like a half moon

    Septic

    Infection due to presence of pathogenlc organisms

    Serrated

    Having a saw-tooth edge

    Serum

    Clear portion of any animal fluid

    Shear

    A biomechanical term meaning a load applied parallel to the surface of a structure; shear strength is the amount of resistance in a material to angular deformation (bending) resulting from shear forces

    Shell

    The acetabular component, the part of a hip replacement system that serves for the hip socket

    Sinus

    A cavity

    Skeleton

    The hard framework of the body. The bones of the body collectively

    Spinous

    A spine-like process; Latin adjective, spinatus

    SS

    Stainless Steel

    Stem

    A device (or tissue or substance) that is transferred, grafted, or inserted into a living body (see also implant, prosthesis)

    Sterile

    Clean and free from all living micro-organisms

    Sternum

    The breast bone

    Sub

    Prefix meaning "below" or "beneath"

    Subclavian

    Beneath the clavicle

    Subluxation

    A partial or incomplete dislocation

    Submaxillary

    Beneath the maxilla

    Subscapular

    Beneath the scapula

    Subsidence

    The settling of a prosthesis after implantation; it is determined by comparing x-rays immediately after surgery to x-rays taken at a later date. Subsidence is a sure sign of loosening of an implant

    Superior

    Higher; opposite of inferior; superioris, a Latin form of the adjective

    Supinate

    To turn the palm of the hand upward (opposite: pronate)

    Supine

    Lying flat on the back (opposite: prone)

    Supra

    Prefix meaning "above;" super has same meaning; opposite of sub

    Surgical pearls

    Expert surgical techniques or tips developed by senior surgeons, often for particular implants or procedures

    Surgical technique

    A series of steps required to complete a surgical procedure (or operation)

    Symphysis

    A growing together

    Synovectomy

    An immovable joint

    Synovia

    A union of bones by means of cartilage

    Synovial Membrane

    A thin tissue that lines the capsule surrounding the joint

    T

    Talus

    The ankle; a bone of the ankle. The tarsal bone articulating with the distal tibia and fibula.

    Tarsus

    (1) The instep; the seven bones forming the back portion of the foot (2) Connective tissue framework of the eyelids.

    Telesession

    An instructional course or lecture provided by one-way video, often a telesession consists of an expert surgeon discussing and/or demonstrating specific techniques or characteristics of an implant system.

    Template

    An outline used to trace bones in order to standardize its form; surgeons use templates of implants to measure against a patient’s x-rays to select the best size and best design for the patient’s anatomy and surgical needs.

    Tendon

    Fibrous connective tissue serving for the attachment of muscles to bones and other parts. Syn. - sinew

    Tensile strength

    A biomechanical measurement of the amount of stress required to cause a given material to fail.

    Thoracic

    Pertaining to the chest; thoracico or thoraco, containing forms

    Ti

    The abbreviation for Titanium, a metal often used in implants

    Tibia

    Latin name of shin bone. Larger bone in the lower leg. Pertaining to the tibia; Latin adjective, tibialis

    Tissue

    A collection of similar cells specialized to perform a particular function

    Titanium

    A metal often used in the manufacture of orthopedic devices or implants. It has good fatigue, wear and strength characteristics and is often combined with other metals in alloys which enhance desirable characteristics.

    Trabecular

    A type of mature bone commonly found at the ends of bones, it is composed of a latticework of bony plates and columns. Its structure gives trabecular bone a great deal of strength despite having less bony material than cortical bone.

    Trochanter

    Either of two bony processes of the upper femoral shaft for muscle attachment

    Trochlear groove

    The articular portion of the anterior surface of the distal femur (the front-facing notch at the lowest part of the femur where the femur joins the knee joint, this groove provides a shallow depression where the patella slides as the knee articulates).

    Tubercle

    A small rounded elevation of eminence on a bone

    Tuberosity

    Broad eminence on a bone

    U

    UHMWPE

    Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene, a type of polyethylene with superior wear properties, very commonly used in orthopedic devices. (see also polyethylene, plastic)

    Ulna

    The inner and larger bone or the forearm; In the correct anatomic position, palms forward, the inner and larger bone of the forearm, between the wrist and the elbow, on the side opposite the thumb.

    Ultra-congruent

    Highly congruent, contains a high degree of constraint between two articular implants (see also congruent)

    Uncemented

    A prosthesis that is implanted without cement (see also press-fit)

    UNI

    Unicompartmental knee (also can be the abbreviation for unilateral)

    Unilateral

    One-sided, affecting only one-side (ex. a unilateral knee replacement would replace just one knee, not both) (see also uni)

    V

    Valgus

    A term denoting position meaning bent outward (knock-knee) or twisted, applied especially to deformities in which a part is bent outward. Also increased femoral head-neck angle

    Value-added services

    This is a broad term that encompasses systems that help orthopedic customers (surgeons and hospitals) meet the demands of managed care, these systems are not directly related to orthopedic implants

    Varus

    (1) Turned inward; bowlegged. (2) A condition in which a clubfooted person walks on outer border of the foot. Also, decreased femoral head-neck angle

    Vastus

    Wide or great

    Vertex

    The summit or apex

    Viscous

    Sticky or gummy, thick fluid

    Vitreous

    Glassy

    Voluntary

    Performed in accordance with the will; opposite of involuntary

    W

    Wear

    The loss of material from solid surfaces due to mechanical abrasion

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